What’s behind Russia and Germany expelling each other’s diplomats?

When Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, sent a diplomat abroad as a military attaché, a small but important ritual was part of it. The king accepted an undertaking that the gentleman would not spy while on duty. Those who sealed the deal with a handshake based their high status on heroic virtues. Spying was considered immoral by them. However, it was not until the First World War that the Scout Craft industry flourished.

“In those days, diplomats were almost automatically agents,” says intelligence historian Wolfgang Krieger, professor emeritus at the University of Marburg. “Most of the intelligence work was done by embassies.

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